Historical Information

Kos has been inhabited since prehistoric times, according to the findings discovered in Cave White Stone on the hill Thursday Friday Kefalos.

The systematic study and research that has been enriched by new discoveries put these findings in the Early Bronze Age characterized as Helladic (2900-2100 BC). Then there were large movements of the Pelasgians across the Greek peninsula, the Aegean Sea to Asia Minor and Cyprus. In the town of Kos, the first plant population is around 2300-2000 BC current followed by a steady expansion and accepting the effects of both but mainly Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations left behind substantial residue (1600-1150 BC).
After the Trojan War, in which Kos to nearby islands involved with thirty ships, enter the so-called "Dorian invasion Herakleidon" depicting the islands and Asia Minor.
According to the prevailing view that these young people of Kos had probably originating from the area of ​​Argolida. During the 7th-6th century, Kos, jointly with the cities Cnidus and Halicarnassus in Asia Minor and Ialyssos, Lindos and Kamiros from Rhodes, they formed a coalition called the Dorian "Dorian Hexapolis" and had as a unifying center of the temple of Apollo Triopian near Knidos. The amphictyony was religious, economic and political.


In 500 BC around Kos was conquered by the Persians and necessarily in the Battle of Salamis (480 BC) participated together with other subjugated Greek cities of Asia Minor and the islands alongside the Persians. However, after the Greek victory in the Persian Wars and the removal of the Persian threat is liberated Kos joined the Athenian alliance.

The island had a steady growth thanks to rich soils, commerce and shipping flourished and letters, arts, sciences and especially medicine. At that time he was born in Kos, the father of medicine Hippocrates (460-377 BC), son of a famous family of doctors, who after many trips, data collection and studies returned to the island where he founded and taught at the Medical School. His scientific writings which subjects studied to date are known under the title "Hippocratic Collection". During the Peloponnesian War Kos suffered and that the consequences of political rivalries and friction resulting in successive switch to rival alliances.

In 332 BC and after a brief Persian occupation Kos released by Alexander the Great. In Hellenistic times the island belonged to the state of the Ptolemies and during the conflict the Romans and Philip V claimed the second and suffered raids Mithridates (88 BC). From 82 BC Kos was a Roman province. During the Byzantine period saw a new peak when he became bishop, and suffered considerable damage from both attacks (Saracens 11th century.) And the worst earthquakes to that of 553. The island was briefly the sequential control of the Venetians, Genoese to arrive in 1315 to the Knights of the Order of St. John, who built a powerful fortress in an attempt to secure possession against the Turkish threat. Eventually in 1523 after unsuccessful attempts preceding Kos was conquered by the Turks. The Turkish domination lasted until 1912, when under Italotourkikou War held in Libya, the Italians as a distraction occupied the Dodecanese. The Italian occupation lasted until 1943 when after the surrender of Italy and the alliance with the Allies, German troops landed by sea and air and seized the island of Kos on Oct. 3. By the end of V'Pagkosmiou War years 1945-1947 followed the British occupation until the unification of the Dodecanese to Greece in 1948.